is a multi-faceted process characterized by the following recurrent
is continuous and ongoing, providing both formative (i.e., ongoing)
and summative (i.e., culminating) opportunities for monitoring
students' progress toward achieving essential outcomes.
is multidimensional, i.e., reflecting a wide variety of artifacts
and processes reflecting various aspects of students' learning
provides for collaborative reflection, including ways for students
to reflect about their own thinking processes and metacognitive
introspection as they monitor their own comprehension, reflect upon
their approaches to problem-solving and decision-making, and observe
their emerging understanding of subjects and skills.
to portfolio development may vary, all of the major research and
literature on portfolios reinforce the following characteristics:
clearly reflect stated learner outcomes identified in the core or
essential curriculum that students are expected to study.
focus upon students' performance-based learning experiences as well
as their acquisition of key knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
contain samples of work that stretch over an entire marking period,
rather than single points in time.
contain works that represent a variety of different assessment
contain a variety of work samples and evaluations of that work by
the student, peers, and teachers, possible even parents' reactions.
Source: Paul S.
George, (1995). What Is Portfolio Assessment Really and How Can I Use It
in My Classroom? Gainesville, FL: Teacher Education Resources.
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