• Twice-exceptional (2e)

    Definitions

    Gifted students with learning disabilities are a unique subgroup of students who demonstrate both superior intellectual ability and specific learning problems. Also known as “twice exceptional” and “dually exceptional, “gifted students with LD have cognitive, psychological, and academic needs that appear distinct from those of either gifted populations or those with LD (Crawford & Snart, 1994). Students with dual exceptionalities tend to fall into two categories: (a) those with mild disabilities whose gifts generally mask their disabilities and (b) those whose disabilities are so severe that they mask the gift (Baum & Owen, 2004). Often these students are not identified for either gifted or special education services due to the combination of their advanced capabilities and difficulties. High intellectual functioning often compensates for the learning difficulty, obscuring both the gifted potential and the learning disability (Baum, 1990; 1998). In essence, the gift masks the disability, and the disability masks the gift. This population of learners is highly diverse. However, in an effort to help recognize and understand the interaction of giftedness and learning disabilities, each category and potential combinations of the two are outlined below.  


    • Gifted behavior consists of an interaction among three basic clusters of human traits: above average ability, high levels of task commitment, and creativity. Students who are gifted are considered to be academically talented individuals who have abilities in one or more domains that are significantly advanced (Renzulli, 1978).  

    • Learning disability is characterized as a specific learning difficulty that is demonstrated by a substantial discrepancy between performance and ability. Students with LD seem to be performing below their potential in one or more areas and are most often provided with remediation in deficit areas.  

    • Gifted/LD behavior results from the interaction of high ability and a learning disability that may create social and emotional difficulties as students struggle to understand why they can know the answer, but are unable to say or write it correctly (Reis & Colbert, 2004).  

    • Gifted/other disabilities characterized by high activity level, impulsivity, low frustration tolerance, and social/emotional difficulties may co-exist with giftedness and lead to additional


    Source: Twice Exceptional: Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities Considerations Packet, William and Mary School of Education


    Research Quotes


    Talented and Gifted Students


    Children are gifted when their ability is significantly above the norm for their age. Giftedness may manifest in one or more domains such as; intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership, or in a specific academic field such as language arts, mathematics or science.


    It is difficult to estimate the absolute number of gifted children in the U.S. and the world because the calculation is dependent on the number of areas, or domains, being measured and the method used to identify gifted children. However, many consider children who are in the top 10 percent in relation to a national and/or local norm to be a good guide for identification and services.It is important to note that not all gifted children look or act alike. Giftedness exists in every demographic group and personality type. It is important that adults look hard to discover potential and support gifted children as they reach for their personal best.


    Source:  National Association of Gifted Children website:  https://www.nagc.org/resources-publications/resources/what-giftedness


    Twice Exceptional Students


    Crawford and Snart also states, "Gifted children with disabilities are often able to use their superior abilities, especially in the areas of predictive ability, vocabulary, conceptual ability, and verbal expression, to compensate for areas of weakness."


    "Beckley (1998) also mentions the use of oral language, memory skills, problem-solving capabilities, curiosity, and drive as indicators often associated with GLD students and suggests portfolio assessment as an important tool for the identification of these children."


    Source: Clark, B. (2012). Growing up gifted (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.


    Twice exceptionality is not a diagnosis; it is a conceptual way of identifying, understanding, and supporting the social, emotional and academic needs of a uniquely gifted learner. Twice-exceptional students demonstrate superior ability in one or more areas (specific academics, intellectual ability, creativity, leadership, visual or performing arts) and one or more social, emotional or academic challenge(s) caused by a neurobiological disorder (ADHD, Dyslexia, Autism), or an emotional, sensory or learning disability.


    Source: Gifted and Underachieving… The Twice Exceptional Learner by Melissa Sornik, LMSW


    This term refers to the fact that this group of gifted children are exceptional both because of their strengths and because of their limitations. Coupled with high intelligence, these children also may have one or more learning disabilities, attention deficit, autism spectrum disorder,  emotional or behavior problems, or other types of learning challenges.


    Source: 2e Newsletter http://www.2enewsletter.com/topic_2e_what_is.html


    Twice-exceptional learners are students who give evidence of the potential for high achievement capability in areas such as specific academics; general intellectual ability; creativity; leadership; AND/OR visual, spatial, or performing arts AND also give evidence of one or more disabilities as defined by federal or state eligibility criteria such as specific learning disabilities; speech and language disorders; emotional/behavioral disorders; physical disabilities; autism spectrum; or other health impairments, such as ADHD.  Twice-exceptional students represent a unique group of learners with diverse programming and emotional needs due to the fact that they may have both gifts and disabilities.


    Source: National Association of Gifted Children website: https://www.nagc.org/get-involved/nagc-networks-and-special-interest-groups/twice-exceptional-special-interest-group


    Students with Disabilities


    The term "child with a disability" means a child—

    (i) with intellectual disabilities, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance (referred to in this chapter as "emotional disturbance"), orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities; and

    (ii) who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services. (Taken from Chapter 33 of the IDEA http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title20/chapter33/subchapter1&edition=prelim